Chandrayaan 2: India’s Remarkable Lunar Odyssey


Chandrayaan 2, India’s second lunar exploration mission, marked a significant milestone in the country’s space exploration endeavors. Launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in July 2019, this mission aimed to build upon the success of its predecessor, Chandrayaan 1, and further our understanding of the Moon. In this article, we will delve into the remarkable journey of Chandrayaan 2, its objectives, achievements, and the scientific importance of this ambitious mission.

Chandrayaan 2 Objectives:

The primary objectives of Chandrayaan 2 were as follows:

  1. To Study Lunar Topography: Chandrayaan 2 aimed to provide high-resolution images of the lunar surface, allowing scientists to study the Moon’s topography in detail. This would help in understanding the geology and geological evolution of the Moon.
  2. Examine the Moon’s Water Content: One of the mission’s key objectives was to locate and study water ice on the Moon, particularly in the lunar south pole region. This information is crucial for future lunar colonization plans.
  3. Measure Lunar Seismic Activity: Chandrayaan 2 included a seismometer to measure lunar seismic activity, providing insights into the Moon’s interior and its composition.
  4. Analyze Lunar Exosphere: The orbiter aimed to analyze the Moon’s exosphere, the extremely thin outer layer of the lunar atmosphere. This would contribute to our understanding of the lunar environment.

Mission Components:

Chandrayaan 2 consisted of three main components:

  1. Orbiter: The orbiter was designed to orbit the Moon and provide communication support for the lander and rover. It carried a suite of scientific instruments to study the lunar surface and exosphere.
  2. Vikram Lander: The lander was meant to make a soft landing on the lunar surface near the south pole. It carried the Pragyan rover, which was equipped with instruments for surface exploration.
  3. Pragyan Rover: The rover, named Pragyan, was designed to explore the lunar surface, conduct experiments, and analyze soil samples.

Challenges and Achievements:

Chandrayaan 2 faced its share of challenges, particularly during the landing phase. Unfortunately, the Vikram lander lost communication with ISRO during its descent, resulting in a loss of contact. Despite this setback, the orbiter continued to function as planned and has been providing valuable data since its arrival in lunar orbit.

The orbiter’s high-resolution imagery and data have significantly contributed to our understanding of the Moon’s geology, surface composition, and topography. It has also been successful in detecting water ice on the Moon’s surface, a critical discovery for future lunar exploration and potential colonization efforts.

Scientific Significance:

Chandrayaan 2 has expanded our knowledge of the Moon in various ways. Its findings have shed light on the Moon’s geological history, the presence of water resources, and the lunar environment. This information is invaluable for planning future lunar missions, including crewed missions to the Moon.

FAQs) about Chandrayaan-2

Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) about Chandrayaan 2:

What is Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 is India’s second lunar exploration mission, launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to study the Moon.

What were the objectives of Chandrayaan-2?

The primary objectives of Chandrayaan-2 were to study lunar topography, examine the Moon’s water content, measure lunar seismic activity, and analyze the lunar exosphere.

What were the components of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 consisted of three main components: the orbiter, the Vikram lander, and the Pragyan rover.

Did Chandrayaan 2 successfully land on the Moon?

The Vikram lander of Chandrayaan 2 experienced communication issues during its descent and lost contact with ISRO. However, the orbiter continued to operate successfully and has been providing valuable data from lunar orbit.

What scientific instruments were onboard the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter?

The orbiter was equipped with a suite of scientific instruments to study the lunar surface, exosphere, and more. These instruments included cameras, spectrometers, and a seismometer.

What were the key findings of Chandrayaan 2?

Chandrayaan 2 made significant discoveries, including the detection of water ice on the Moon’s surface, insights into lunar topography, and valuable data about the lunar exosphere.

How does Chandrayaan 2 contribute to future lunar exploration?

Chandrayaan 2’s findings are essential for planning future lunar missions, including potential lunar colonization efforts. The data collected aids in understanding the Moon’s environment and resources.

Is Chandrayaan 2 still operational?

While the Vikram lander did not succeed in its landing attempt, the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter continues to function and provide valuable data from its orbit around the Moon.

What is the significance of Chandrayaan 2 for India’s space program?

Chandrayaan 2 represents a significant achievement for India’s space exploration efforts, showcasing the country’s commitment to scientific discovery and innovation in space exploration.

Are there plans for future lunar missions by ISRO?

Yes, ISRO has expressed its intent to continue lunar exploration with future missions, building on the knowledge and experience gained from Chandrayaan 2.


Chandrayaan 2, despite facing challenges, has been a monumental achievement for India’s space program. It has not only advanced our understanding of the Moon but has also paved the way for future lunar exploration endeavors. As ISRO continues to expand its space exploration efforts, Chandrayaan 2 will remain a symbol of India’s commitment to scientific discovery and innovation in space exploration.


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